Portland Cement Types

Share on facebook
Share on google
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
The Cement Institute

Portland Cement Types

In the construction industry, there are different types of cement, and each of them has its own advantages.

TYPE I – GENERAL USE CEMENT
Portland cement type 1 or general purpose is the most used of all cements and is suitable for all uses where special properties of other types are not required, with an average rate of heat evolution and strength development. It is used where cement or concrete are not subject to specific exposures, such as sulfate attack from soil or water, or an objectionable temperature increase due to the heat generated by hydration. Its uses include sidewalks and pavements, reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, railway structures, tanks, deposits, sewers, water pipes and masonry units.

 

TYPE II – RESISTANT TO MODERATE SULFATE ACTION

Portland cement is used when it is important to take precautions against moderate sulfate attack, such as in drainage structures where sulfate concentrations in groundwater are higher than normal but not unusually severe. Type II cement will generally generate less heat at a slower rate than Type I. With this moderate heat of hydration (an optional requirement), Type II cement can be used in large-mass structures, such as large piers, heavy pillars and retaining wall. Its use will reduce the temperature rise, especially important when the concrete is placed in a warm climate.

TYPE III – HIGH EARLY STRENGTH

The fast-hardening Portland cement is similar in chemical composition to ordinary cement, but physically differs in the finest grinding during manufacturing. Although it is not “fast setting” and concretes made with it remain viable for similar periods of time, the greater specific surface area provided by the finer particle size increases the rate of early hydration, which provides higher early resistances that are important in concrete work where the economy requires the early removal of formwork or the rapid change of precast concrete units in a mold. In cold weather, its use allows a reduction in the controlled curing period. Although richer mixtures of Type I cement can be used to obtain high early strength, Portland Type III cement, high-early-strength, can provide it more satisfactorily and economically.

TYPE IA, IIA, IIIA – AIR-ENTRAINING PORTLAND CEMENTS

The specifications for the three types of Portland cement for air incorporation (Types IA, IIA and IIIA) are given in ASTM C150. They correspond in composition with ASTM Types I, II and III, respectively, except that a small amount of air-entraining the materials are interspersed with the clinker during manufacture, well distributed and completely separate air bubbles. These types of cement produce concrete with improved resistance to freezing and thawing.

TYPE IV – LOW HEAT OF HYDRATION

Type IV is a low heat hydration cement for use where the speed and amount of heat generated must be minimized. It develops strength at a slower rate than type I cement. Portland cement type IV is designed for use in massive concrete, structures such as large gravity dams, where the temperature rise resulting from the heat generated during curing represents a critical factor.

TYPE V – HIGH RESISTANCE TO SULFATE

Type V is a sulfate-resistant cement that is used only in concrete exposed to a severe sulfate action, mainly where soils or groundwater have a high sulfate content. Table 1 describes the sulfate concentrations that require the use of Type V Portland cement. A low content of tricalcium aluminate (C3A), generally 5 % or less, is required when high sulfate resistance is required.

WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT

White Portland cement is widely used for visual effects in white or colored concrete that should be left exposed, and also in white or colored mortars for masonry and rendering. It has the same properties as type I, but it is manufactured from special raw materials that are substantially free of color-forming compounds, such as iron oxides, which give other cements their characteristic gray or gray-brown color.

MASONRY CEMENT

Masonry cement is produced from the common Portland cement clinker with additives incorporated during grinding. Mortars made only with Portland cement and common sand lack the cohesiveness required for the placement or cutting of masonry. The additives incorporated during the grinding of the masonry cement increase the cohesion of the mixed mortar, increase water retention and limit the development of resistance in the mixture. Masonry cement is not suitable for making concrete.

Attack in particular by soil and water that contain various concentrations of sulfate

Table 1

* Or the approved portland-pozzolan cement provides comparable sulfate resistance when used in concrete.
** The pozzolan that has been determined by tests to improve sulfate resistance should be approved when used in concrete with type V cement.

Please, join our Cement Technical Forum

Notifications
Clear all
Share:

Leave a Replay

About Us

The Cement Institute provides powerful tools to drive success through knowledge and productivity delivered. Focus on plant assessment, plant personnel and plant methodology.

Recent Posts

Sign up for our Newsletter

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit